Dual Containment: A Chapter in US-Gulf Relations
The last eight years have seen a torturous, violent conflict between the United States and Iraq that dominates the lives of both nations. Instead of culminating in a decisive victory and peaceful transition as excepted, the US invasion of Iraq in March 2003 has bogged down American forces in an ongoing military occupation against sectarian violence, Iraqi insurgency, and political instability. The invasion began a new chapter in the history of the two nations, and these years of conflict have been a massive setback to the people of both countries. Today, the war in Iraq is highly unpopular across the world and the misinformed justifications of the war have been exposed and debunked. An even closer look at the history of the decade before the invasion unveils many a dubious foreign policy… Keep Reading.
Dependence vs. Independence
In their paper Judicial Independence in International Tribunals, Eric Posner and John C. Yoo argue elaborately for the concept that international tribunals that are dependent are more effective than independent international tribunals. Posner and Yoo’s reasons behind their radical claims lie in their skepticism of the claims of effectiveness of independent tribunals. They believe that international law scholars have transferred the logic of independence in the domestic arena to the logic of independence in the international sphere, wrongly relating the consequences of biased domestic judges to the same consequences of biases in international courts. In response to Posner and Yoo’s paper, Laurence R. Helfer and Anne-Maria Slaughter published Why States Create International Tribunals: A Response to Professors Posner and Yoo, addressing in detail the flaws in Posner and Yoo’s paper. Helfer and Slaughter maintain that international tribunals are highly effective by virtue of their independence, and question Posner and Yoo’s selection bias and murky analyses. The realist in me would have to align with Posner and Yoo, if only because I agree with their overarching argument that states will choose to interact with international tribunals only if the states can be assured that their interests will be protected. However, Helfer and Slaughter do an excellent job of shedding light on the flaws in Posner and Yoo’s methodology… Keep Reading.